APA (American Psychological Association)

February 2, 2008

The citation style associated with the social sciences is APA (American Psychology Association).  This style places the date of the publication immediately after the author. Other distinguishing features of this style include only using initials for first names and placing titles in lower case.

APA Style Guide, The OWL at Purdue

Purdue’s OWL (Online Writing Lab) was one of the first such online services and remains one of the most respected for its online handouts. This resource covers APA (American Psychological Association) style for citing sources used within the social sciences and is updated for the 5th edition of the APA manual.  The resource includes explanation and examples of how to do in-text citations and the reference page.

APA Style Guide for Electronic Resources 

This cite is maintained by the American Psychological Association (APA) and is where APA annouces the most recent changes to APA style that have to do with electronic sources.  Specific sections of the cite include: Electronic media and URLs, Electronic media spelling guide, General forms for electronic references, Reference examples for electronic source materials, and Citations in text of electronic material.

APA Style: The Social Sciences
Diana Hacker Resources

Examples of bibliographic and in-text citations using APA in the social sciences.


Research Management Tools

February 2, 2008

This page provides annotated links to a collection of web-based services and software that will assist you in maintaining a personal database of bibliographic sources, whether books, articles, web sites, audio files, videos, or more. These tools will allow you to easily change the formatting style of the bibliography from one style to the next (for example, MLA to APA) as well as directly incorporate the in-text citations as you compose using word processing software.

The first group of research management tools are free to GW students and faculty. Because researchers often have different needs, an additional list of fee-based options is included at the end.

CAVEAT – Please keep in mind when working with these tools that as the writer and researcher, you are responsible for the accuracy of the results. Review the bibliography and in-text citations generated to make sure they accurately adhere to the desired formatting style.



This research management tool is now free for all GW students and faculty. RefWorks is designed to aid in gathering, managing, storing and publishing information. Users can generate personal databases for research projects and format bibliographies and manuscripts instantly. It easily imports references from databases and with the add on of Ref Grab It, allows you to capture data from webpages.   An additional add on for Word – Write N’ Cite – allows you to easily place citations into your papers.  For more information on using RefWorks at GW, go to http://www.gwu.edu/gelman/service/refworks/


Zotero is a free, browser-based research platform under development at the Center for History and New Media at George Mason University. A Firefox 2.0 Add-on (this means it only works with Firefox, not IE or any other browser), Zotero provides users the means to seamlessly capture, read, annotate, organize, aggregate, share, analyze, build upon, and cite their sources (whether bibliography or full-text articles). Designed as a scholarly workbench for the new networked information landscape, it combines features from existing reference management systems with the open knowledge communities increasingly characteristic of Web 2.0. To get started with Zotero, watch the demo video http://www.zotero.org/videos/tour/zotero_tour.htm


  • Automatic capture of citation information from web pages, library catalogs, online databases, and digital archives
  • Storage of PDFs, files, images, links, and whole web pages
  • Ability to annotate and highlight archived web pages
  • Flexible notetaking with autosave
  • Fast, as-you-type search through your materials
  • Playlist-like library organization, including saved searches and tags
  • Citation formatting and bibliography creation
  • Integration with Microsoft Word and other applications and web tools
  • Free and open source

Bedford Bibliographer [WEB-BASED APPLICATION]

This is a FREE and simple-to-use web-based application for generating bibliographies. The service does require registration to set up a password, but registration only requires filling out a few fields and providing a password. The tool’s design makes it intuitive to use, but there is a help feature and user tutorials for added instruction. Though free and well designed, it offers only a select group of citation formats: Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA), Council of Science Editors (CSE), and two forms of Chicago (Notes-and-Bibliography and Author-Date). Also, it only generates a bibliography and does not assist in incorporating the corresponding in-text citations.

Fee-based tools


EndNote software is bibliographic management software that aids in building, maintaining, and publishing bibliographies. It allows you to search bibliographic databases and drag and drop the references directly into the software. Includes “cite while you write” functionality with 2,300 bibliographic styles and built-in manuscript templates.

Price: $99.95 with student discount at academicsuperstore.com

NOTE: Gelman has online EndNote tutorials available at http://www.gwu.edu/gelman/guides/endnote/

Noodlebib [WEB-BASED APPLICATION]http://www.noodletools.com

This online bibliography making tools is popular with secondary schools (i.e. middle and high schools) because of its ease of use and free MLA-only option. To get access to APA, one needs to subscribe.

Price: Individual subscription is $8 per year.

Chicago Manual of Style (CMS)

February 2, 2008

Developed by Chicago Press, this citation style is distinguished by its use of footnotes or endnotes.  This style is used in many disciplines from the humanities to the social sciences.

Chicago Manual of Style Online

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is one of the standard styles of the publishing world.  In 2006 CMS  finally produced an online version.  Full access to the manual requires a yearly subscription. 

Because the online service is new, they are offering an introductory subscription price for a single user of $25 per year.  There is also a 30-day free trial.

The site does include some noteworthy free services. The Quick Guide section offers an overview of the Chicago Manual of Style and includes electronic source examples. The  Q&A section is a cornucopia of tidbits about CMS and could be very helpful to students because the questions are common issues and the answers are practical and applicable.  The only drawback to this section is that it is organized by the month the question was submitted and not by topic.

Citation Guide – Chicago Manual of Style
The University of Arizona Library

Easy to read and navigate examples of bibliographic entries using the Chicago Manual of Style (15th edition).

Chicago Style: History
Diana Hacker Resources

Examples of bibliographic, in-text and footnote entries of Chicago Style used in the discipline of History.

MLA (Modern Language Association)

February 2, 2008

MLA (Modern Language Association) is the citation style used in the humanities.

MLA Style Guide, The OWL at Purdue

Purdue’s OWL (Online Writing Lab) was one of the first online services and remains one of the most respected for its online handouts. This resource covers MLA (Modern Language Association) style for citing sources used within the liberal arts and is updated according to the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers and the 2nd edition of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing.   The resource includes explanation and examples of in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 


This is the official MLA FAQ page that includes responses to key electronic source questions such as  “How do I document sources from the Web in my works-cited list?” and “I am using a source on the Web that has no page numbers. How do I cite it?” and more.

MLA Style: English and Other Humanities
Diana Hacker Resources

Examples of bibliographic and in-text citations using MLA in English and other humanities.

Integrating Sources into your Writing

February 2, 2008

Once you have found the material to include in your writing, you need to incorporate this material into your writing.  The resources below will show you have to integrate sources into your writing by properly quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing the words and ideas of others.

Resources (ranked choices)

#1 – How to Work with Information from Sources: Quotations, Paraphrases, and Summaries [TUTORIAL]
Bedford Research Room

Developed by Mike Palmquist, Professor of English and University Distinguished Teaching Scholar at Colorado State University, author of The Bedford Researcher and developer of the acclaimed online writing studio writing@csu, This tutorial walks the user through how to integrate sources through direct quotations, paraphrases, and summaries.  Each section includes examples from student writing, but there are no interactive elements in this tutorial.

#2 – Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing [E-HANDOUT]
The OWL at Purdue

Purdue’s OWL (Online Writing Lab) was one of the first such online services and remains one of the most respected.  These e-handouts cover the basics of quoting, paraphrasing and summarizing.

#3 – Bedford Researcher Companion Web Site [TUTORIAL]
Mike Palmquist (2006)

This is the online tutorial from the companion web site of The Bedford Researcher by Mike Palmquist, Professor of English and University Distinquished Teaching Scholar at Colorado State University and developer of the acclaimed online writing studio writing@csu.  Of particular note is  Chapter 13: How Do I Integrate a Quotation into my Draft?  Chapter 13 goes over integrating direct quotations into a sentence or paragraph with ample practice every step of the way.

CSE (Council of Science Editors, formerly Council of Biology Editors)

February 2, 2008

This style is from the Council of Science Editors, formerly known as the Council of Biology Editors.  It is the citation style used in publications in the hard sciences.

Writing Guides, Style Manuals and the Publication Process in the Biological and Health Sciences
University of Minnesota Libraries

A collection of links to writing guides, style manuals, and other resources for writing in the biological and health sciences.

APA Style: Biology and Ohter Sciences
Diana Hacker Resources

Examples of bibliographic and in-text citations using CSE style in bilogy and other sciences.

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

February 2, 2008

Citation sytles are often discipline specific.  In engineering, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) offers a style manual for the field of engineering. 

IEEE Standards Style Manual

This is the official online IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Style manual updated for 2007.