Citing Electronic Sources (ranked choices)

February 2, 2008

Researching today happens online where sources are found and examined in their electronic format.  The resources below explain how to cite electronic sources from YouTube videos to blogs as well as how to cite sources found online through electronic databases or web sites.

#1-  Documenting Electronic Sources, The OWL at Purdue
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/584/01/

Purdue’s OWL (Online Writing Lab) was one of the first such online services and remains one of the most respected.  Electronic sources are some of the most confusing types of sources to cite because the changing and expanding nature of new media means it often does not fit neatly into the traditional citation format structure.  This resource is really a conduit to links to specific resources on documenting electronic sources and is made up of three sections.  The first section is an overview of the issues concerning online sources.  The second section links to resources that examine the issues and intricacies of electronic sources in MLA, APA, and discipline-specific styles from Chicago Manual of Style to Biology/CBE style.  The final section is a list of links to online guides to citing electronic sources.

#2 – Columbia Guide to Online Style (2nd ed.), Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor
http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos2006/basic.html

This is the companion web site for the book The Columbia Guide to Online Style and provides samples from the book on how to cite electronically accessed sources in MLA, Chicago, APA and CBE.

#3 – Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources
Andrew Harnack and Eugene Kleppinger
http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/index.html

This companion web site includes a section on how to cite electronic sources from web sites to email messages in MLA, APA, Chicago, CBE, and other styles.  The book was published in 2003 and the website has not been updated since then making some of the most recent electronic source types such as blogs absent from the list.

#4- How to Cite Electronic Sources, The Library of Congress Learning Page
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/start/cite/

The Library of Congress has a “Learning Page” that explains how to cite sources accessed electronically such as cartoons, films, maps, photographs, sound recordings, presentations, texts, legal documents, and newspapers.


APA (American Psychological Association)

February 2, 2008

The citation style associated with the social sciences is APA (American Psychology Association).  This style places the date of the publication immediately after the author. Other distinguishing features of this style include only using initials for first names and placing titles in lower case.

APA Style Guide, The OWL at Purdue
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

Purdue’s OWL (Online Writing Lab) was one of the first such online services and remains one of the most respected for its online handouts. This resource covers APA (American Psychological Association) style for citing sources used within the social sciences and is updated for the 5th edition of the APA manual.  The resource includes explanation and examples of how to do in-text citations and the reference page.

APA Style Guide for Electronic Resources 
http://www.apastyle.org/styleelecref.html

This cite is maintained by the American Psychological Association (APA) and is where APA annouces the most recent changes to APA style that have to do with electronic sources.  Specific sections of the cite include: Electronic media and URLs, Electronic media spelling guide, General forms for electronic references, Reference examples for electronic source materials, and Citations in text of electronic material.

APA Style: The Social Sciences
Diana Hacker Resources
http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/p04_c09_o.html

Examples of bibliographic and in-text citations using APA in the social sciences.


Chicago Manual of Style (CMS)

February 2, 2008

Developed by Chicago Press, this citation style is distinguished by its use of footnotes or endnotes.  This style is used in many disciplines from the humanities to the social sciences.

Chicago Manual of Style Online
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is one of the standard styles of the publishing world.  In 2006 CMS  finally produced an online version.  Full access to the manual requires a yearly subscription. 

Because the online service is new, they are offering an introductory subscription price for a single user of $25 per year.  There is also a 30-day free trial.

The site does include some noteworthy free services. The Quick Guide section offers an overview of the Chicago Manual of Style and includes electronic source examples. The  Q&A section is a cornucopia of tidbits about CMS and could be very helpful to students because the questions are common issues and the answers are practical and applicable.  The only drawback to this section is that it is organized by the month the question was submitted and not by topic.

Citation Guide – Chicago Manual of Style
The University of Arizona Library
http://www.library.arizona.edu/search/reference/citation-cms.html#cmsbk6

Easy to read and navigate examples of bibliographic entries using the Chicago Manual of Style (15th edition).

Chicago Style: History
Diana Hacker Resources
http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/p04_c10_s1.html

Examples of bibliographic, in-text and footnote entries of Chicago Style used in the discipline of History.


MLA (Modern Language Association)

February 2, 2008

MLA (Modern Language Association) is the citation style used in the humanities.

MLA Style Guide, The OWL at Purdue
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/557/01/

Purdue’s OWL (Online Writing Lab) was one of the first online services and remains one of the most respected for its online handouts. This resource covers MLA (Modern Language Association) style for citing sources used within the liberal arts and is updated according to the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers and the 2nd edition of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing.   The resource includes explanation and examples of in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 

MLA Style FAQ
http://www.mla.org/style/style_faq

This is the official MLA FAQ page that includes responses to key electronic source questions such as  “How do I document sources from the Web in my works-cited list?” and “I am using a source on the Web that has no page numbers. How do I cite it?” and more.

MLA Style: English and Other Humanities
Diana Hacker Resources
http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/p04_c08_o.html

Examples of bibliographic and in-text citations using MLA in English and other humanities.


CSE (Council of Science Editors, formerly Council of Biology Editors)

February 2, 2008

This style is from the Council of Science Editors, formerly known as the Council of Biology Editors.  It is the citation style used in publications in the hard sciences.

Writing Guides, Style Manuals and the Publication Process in the Biological and Health Sciences
University of Minnesota Libraries
http://www.lib.umn.edu/libdata/page_print.phtml?page_id=714

A collection of links to writing guides, style manuals, and other resources for writing in the biological and health sciences.

APA Style: Biology and Ohter Sciences
Diana Hacker Resources
http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/p04_c11_o.html

Examples of bibliographic and in-text citations using CSE style in bilogy and other sciences.


IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

February 2, 2008

Citation sytles are often discipline specific.  In engineering, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) offers a style manual for the field of engineering. 

IEEE Standards Style Manual
http://standards.ieee.org/guides/style/

This is the official online IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Style manual updated for 2007.